High Power Radio Frequency Solid-State Amplifiers and Combiners for Particle Accelerators: From module to system design approach

  • Date:
  • Location: Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1 Häggsalen
  • Doctoral student: Long Hoang
  • Contact person: Dragos Dancila
  • Disputation

This thesis focuses on implementing an optimal charging scheme for SRF cavities, which helps reducing the wasted energy and improves the overall efficiency operation at future accelerating facilities. Therefore, these results contribute further to the larger adoption of solid state technologies in the future power generation systems for particle accelerators.

Abstract

The rise of Big Science projects brings issues related to the energy consumption and the associated environmental impacts of such large-scale facilities. Therefore, environmentally-sustainable developments are undertaken towards the adoption of energy savings and improved energy-efficient approaches. The advent of the superconducting (SC) radio frequency (RF) accelerating cavity is bringing answers to these issues. Such superconducting RF (SRF) cavity is made of niobium that allows much higher accelerating gradients with a minimization of the energy consumption. The SC RF technology is increasingly used in many modern particle accelerators, including: the European Spallation Source (ESS), the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL), the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)-II and the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC).

The innovation of solid state PA technology pushes limits regarding packaging, efficiency, frequency capability, thermal stability, making them more attractive than other well-established alternative technologies, such as vacuum tube technology in mid-range power applications. Through the investigations of designs and techniques, this research goal of the thesis allows to improve solid-state based power generation systems from module to the overall system design. This thesis introduces the single-ended PA design approach in planar technology and at kilowatt level. The design solution unlocks different possibilities including: improved integration, layout flexibility for tuning, and suitably for mass productions that are demanded in future high peak power generation systems. The novel amplifier design is followed by time domain characterization to fully evaluate the pulse profiles of such amplifiers when delivering kilowatt output power level for operation in conjunction with SRF accelerating cavities. Amplitude and phase stability of those amplifiers are also investigated in time-domain. The extracted data can then be used as measurement-based model for predicting factors which could degrade the overall stability of the associated PA.

Future RF power generation systems built around solid state PAs need also efficient combining strategies. Two engineering design solutions are investigated in this thesis aiming for mid- and high- range power combination. One solution is based on a combination of the Gysel structure using suspended strip-line technology for improved power handling capability. Another solution is implementing a radial combiner, which uses re-entrant cavity resonator at 352 MHz and door-nob geometry for coupling at inputs and at the output. These solutions facilitate the scaling up 400 kW for powering ESS spoke cavities while maintaining a high degree of efficiency in RF power generation. This thesis gives insights of system integration and tuning procedures with a demonstration of combining 8 modules, delivering a total of 10 kW output power. Along with the proposed combining solutions at higher power levels, the nominal power block of 10 kW is used as an elementary block to propose scaling up in power till the 400 kW nominal power required by ESS.

Finally, this thesis focuses on implementing an optimal charging scheme for SRF cavities, which helps reducing the wasted energy and improves the overall efficiency operation at future accelerating facilities. Therefore, these results contribute further to the larger adoption of solid state technologies in the future power generation systems for particle accelerators.